Detailed Timeline of European History


 Detailed Timeline of
European History


Ancient
Europe
<< Classical Europe (900-290 BC) >>

Roman Dominance (290 BC-235 AD)


Classical Period (900 – 290 BC)


Beginning of Western Culture and Philosophy


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Classical Period Europe Interactive Map


Europe by 400 BC


Note: From Tribal to Advanced Organization.

Ancient peoples form into organized entities, with organized militaries
to carry out systematic conquests of other peoples. Before this,
military excursions were limited to raids or skirmishes. Shift from
migrations in search of available resources to invasions motivated by
wealth & the spread of influence & culture.

(Timeline Continued Below)


Greeks Emerge from Greek Dark Ages
(~900 – 750 BC):
Greeks emerge from Greek dark ages, relearning writing
from Phoenicians (modern Syria). Greeks become advanced again with
influence of Phoenicians, Egyptians, Mesopotamians. Progress is achieved
in all aspects (social, technology, academic, etc.). From this
foundation, the Greeks develop “western thought & culture”, which will
influence Europeans from that point onward, separating east vs. west
philosophy. Greeks begin to form into powerful city-states again.



Article: Rise of Western Culture and Philosophy (i.e. Classical Greece)


Germanic expansionGermanic Expansion
(~ 850 – 250 BC):

From about 850 through about 250 BC, Germanic tribes take territory away
from the Celts. The mainland Germanic peoples become a separate nation
from those that remain in the Germanic homeland to the north
(Scandinavia).

Italic Peoples (~ 800 BC): Italic
(Latin) peoples (likely Celt origin) from north migrate into central
Italy.

Greeks Colonize Southern Italy
(~ 800
BC)
:
Greeks colonize southern tip of Italy, spreading Greek culture
northward, contributing to development of advanced Roman Republic.

Establishment of Rome
(753 BC):

Establishment of city of Rome by Italic/Latin peoples, absorbing
Etruscans.

First Slavs in Poland
(~ 750 BC):
A
group of Slavs migrates westward to modern southern Poland, becoming the
predecessors to modern Poles.

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Roman Republic (590 BC): End of the
reign of the kings. Beginning of semi-democratic, Greek-inspired Roman
Republic.

Carthage Empire
(By 575 BC):
Carthage
becomes a full-fledged empire. Originally a Phoenician settlement, it
evolves into its own empire after Phoenicia (based in modern Syria in
Middle East) is conquered by Persians. Carthage then proceeded to assert
control over Phoenician colonies in the west Mediterranean Sea, becoming
an independent empire consisting of former Phoencian overseas colonies.

Dawn of the Dacians
(~ 513 BC):
Dacians,
a Thracian tribe, form the powerful kingdom of Dacia, rivaling the
Greeks for power & territory on the Balkan peninsula.

First Democracy in Europe in Athens,
Greece (500 BC):
Adult males who had completed military training were
eligible to vote (most Athenian men over 18), excluding women, slaves &
resident foreigners. Direct democracy – voters decided actual
legislation (referendum) as opposed to voting
Persian Wars
for elected leaders. Ended
by Macedonians (from which Alexander the Great arose) in 322 BC.

Greco-Persian Wars
(500 – 448 BC):
Unified
Persian Empire takes advantage of divisions among Greek city-states.
During the early years of war, Persia conquers all of the Greek
city-states in Anatolia (modern Turkey), and many throughout the East
Balkans. This compelled the Greek states to unite against the Persians,
enabling the Greeks to push the Persians out of Europe, and the western
coast of Anatolia.


Bosporan
Kingdom (~ 480 BC):
Bosporan Kingdom begins, covering east Crimean
Bosporan KingdomPeninsula, and eastern shores opposed to Crimea. Greek colonists become
the ruling class, with bulk of population consisting of Scythians.
Greeks are eventually assimilated into the Scythians, but the
culture/language is Hellenized (Greek), becoming the first Hellenized
society consisting of primarily non-Greeks. The Greco-Scythians would be
driven out & absorbed by Turkic migrating to the region in the 7th
century AD, bringing an end to the kingdom.

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Celt Expansion (By 400 BC): Celtic people
expand throughout Europe, becoming the most widespread ethnogroup on the
continent by 400 BC. By 250 BC, they are pushed to the northwest and
west by Germans, Slavs & Romans. They will become primary ancestors to
modern French, Spanish & Portuguese.


Celt expansion by 250 BC

Spread of Celtic Culture & Language to
British Isles (By 400 BC):
As the Celt people expanded throughout
Europe, their culture & language also spread to dominate the British
Isles by 400 BC. However, they contributed very little to the population
genetics, as the genetic composition of the inhabitants of the British
Isles remained primarily Basque & Northern Iberian.


Rome by 338 BCLatin War (338 BC):
Rome defeats other
cities in area, to control west-central Italy (marked by solid line).
Until this time, had just controlled city states directly surrounding
Rome.


Alexander the Great’s
Conquests (336 – 323 BC):
Alexander the Great, King of Macedon (Greek)
conquers nearly all of Greece, a substantial portion of Dacia & Illyria
to the north, & the Persian Empire (including Middle East & Egypt),
stretching to India in the east. Sparta is not conquered, as they are
avoided due to their superior military. Achieves something not done
before: unifying Greek city-states into a single kingdom. Rugged terrain
had served as deterrent in past, but Macedon’s fighting style (tight
formations with superior shields and spears) perfectly suited for narrow
mountain passes.

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Alexander the Great conquests


Short-Lived
Greek-Macedon Empire (323 BC):
Upon the death of Alexander, the
Greek Seleucid Dynasty
Macedon
(Greek) Empire is divided amongst his generals: Antipater (Greek
territories), Seleucid (Middle East, Mesopotamia, Central Asia) &
Ptolemy (Egypt).

Seleucid Dynasty
(312 BC):
Upon the dissolution of Alexander the Great’s Empire in 323
BC. various players fought for control as successor. Alexander’s General
Seleucus consolidated most of the Asian portion under his rule,
beginning the Seleucid Dynasty, a Greek ruling class over Near East
Asian peoples.

(Timeline Continued Below)

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Greek Ptolemic DynastyPtolemaic Dynasty
(305 BC):
Upon the dissolution of Alexander the Great’s Empire in 323
BC. various players fought for control as successor. Alexander’s General
Ptolemy consolidated most of the Egyptian portion under his rule,
beginning the Ptolemaic Dynasty, a Greek ruling class over Egyptian
peoples.

Samnite Wars
(290 BC):

Rome gains control of nearly all of the Italian peninsula. Paves way for
Rome to become dominant Mediterranean Sea power in following years.

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Note:
Balts.
Baltic peoples cover large portion
of Eastern Europe. They are distinguished by a
Balt tribe distribution
distinct culture &
language, the predecessor to modern Balt culture & languages. During
this time period, they remained a cohesive yet tribal society. Due to
their remote location & lack of a written language, very little is known
about Ancient Balts.


Note:
Finnic
Peoples.
Finnic peoples are primary inhabitants of NE Europe, including
modern Finland, Estonia & NW Russia (most populated region of modern
Russia). Finnic are the ancestors of modern Finnish & Estonians.


Distribution of Northern Germanic peoplesNote: North Germanic Peoples (Scandinavians).

Germanic peoples that remain in the north become Scandinavians (also
recognized as North Germanic), forefathers to modern Norse (Norway),
Swedish (Sweden) and Danish (Denmark). Those that migrate to the
European mainland become known as Germanic peoples, forefathers to the
modern Germans, and partial ancestors of modern French.

Next:
Roman Dominance (290 BC – 235 AD)

Previous:
Ancient Europe (Before 900 BC)


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