Why Golden Horde Was Able to
Dominate Eastern Europe.
As a nomadic people, the Mongols were forced west
from their central Asian home territory due to unusually dry weather.
They were highly dependent upon trade, and as agriculture suffered in
Asia, they moved west to greener pastures.
Superior Military Technology. A result of exposure to various
methods, thanks to their nomadic lifestyle. This included superior
horsemanship skills and superior bows.
Strengthening Numbers. They were also effective at increasing
their ranks as they passed through conquered territories, since they
forced defeated peoples to join and fight with them or die. They would
slaughter all defeated peoples that would not go along with them.
Therefore, they were a frightening power by the time they entered the
gateway to Europe through Southern Russia. The Rus people were submitted
to their rule, but with a fair amount of autonomy, although steep taxes
& tribute were extracted.
Learned Diplomacy. They had also grown to dominate the northern
trade route from Europe to Asia, contributing greatly to their wealth
and sophistication, as they became learned in other aspects besides just
military, including science and government philosophies, which enhanced
their ability to diplomatically appease conquered peoples.
Europe’s Weakened Condition. Their timing was also fortunate, as
their arrival coincided with the Black Death plague, severely weakening
all of Europe. It may have been the Mongols that actually introduced the
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