Development of a Nation
How Finland became Finland,
and how the Fins became Finnish.

Fins as a people, and the country of Finland as a nation-state,
evolved and materialized into current form, in terms of ancestral
bloodlines, the Finnish language, borders, culture, and even how they
received their name.

Ancestral Background
Development of Language
Formation of Borders
Etymology (How Name Received)
Finland in 2008

Finnic migrations
Ancestral Background:

  1. Peoples migrating from the Ural Mountains in
    modern Russia settled around the Gulf of Finland around 4000 BC,
    becoming the ancient ancestors to Finnish  and Estonian peoples. From this
    location, they gradually began to move northwest into modern
    Finland. Those that separated to the south of the Gulf of Finland
    became the ancestors to modern Estonians.
  2. From no later than the 12th
    century, and perhaps much earlier, Swedes began to populate the
    western coastal areas of Finland, contributing somewhat to the
    genetic composition of the Finns.

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Development of Finnish Language:

  1. The Proto-Uralic family of languages (~ 5000
    BC) originated in the Ural Mountains in Russia. This may or may not
    be a
    Proto-Indo-European family language.
  2. The Uralic family of languages branched from
    the Proto-Uralic around 4000 BC, representing a slight change.
  3. The Finno-Ugric branch develops around 3000
    BC, west of Ural Mountains, as speakers of this language cover much
    of the European portion of northern Russia.
  4. The Baltic-Finnic language breaks off from
    Finno-Ugric around 3000 BC, as Uralic peoples subdivide into a
    northern group (ancestors to modern Finns and Estonians) and a
    southern group (ancestors to modern Hungarians). Spoken by Uralic
    peoples that continued to migrate west from Ural Mountain region,
    now gathered around Gulf of Finland.
  5. Around 2000 BC, as some from this Baltic-Finnic
    group migrate northwest into modern Finland, as part of the group
    migrates northwest (into modern Finland), and another part to the
    southwest (modern Estonia), their respective languages diverge from
    one another, forming the basis for the modern Finnish and Estonian
  6. During the Middle Ages, as Finland was
    typically occupied by foreign powers, such as the Swedish in the
    west, the Finnish language becomes somewhat influenced by the
    Swedish language.

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Formation of Finland Borders:

  1. Sweden conquest of Finland
    the 2nd millennia BC, the Finnic people had broken off
    from the Baltic-Finno peoples in modern Estonia, migrating northwest
    into modern Finland. The Finns that settle in this region become the
    earliest forefathers to the modern Finland nation.
  2. Beginning in the 12th century and
    into the 13th century, the Christianized Swedish began to
    crusade into Finland, forcibly converting them to Christianity. By
    the 13th century, Sweden controlled parts of the
    southwest coastal region of Finland, expanding within Finland until
    the beginning of the Kalmar Union in 1397.
  3. By the 12th century, large portions
    of modern eastern Finland within the possession of the Republic of
    Novgorod, a Swedish-ruled East Slav political entity.
  4. Queen Margaret of Denmark marries the King of
    Norway, joining the two kingdoms under personal union in 1380. The
    kingdoms were autonomous, but combined their respective foreign
    policies. Sweden was mired by civil war, and the nobles sided with
    Queen Margaret (King of Norway husband had since died), in joining
    Sweden to the personal union as well, forming a pan-Nordic kingdom.
    This was finalized as the Kalmar Union in 1397. Each kingdom was
    autonomous, but foreign policy was dictated by the monarch. Norway
    included Iceland and Greenland, and Sweden included western Finland.
    The union was dominated by Denmark. The southwest portion of Finland
    was controlled by Sweden, and was therefore included in the Union.
    The eastern part of modern Finland was swallowed by the Grand Duchy
    of Moscow, placing it under East Slav rule.

    Europe 1500 AD

  5. Sweden Expansion
    The Swedes grew unhappy with the
    Danish-dominated government, and the frequent wars they were dragged
    into, compelling them into an armed revolt. Independence of Sweden
    (and their territory in Finland) was achieved in 1523. Denmark and
    Norway remain under personal union, as the Kingdom of
  6. 1560 – Sweden conquered part of modern Estonia
    from the Livonian Order, which is in the process of collapse. Sweden
    also captured more Baltic territory from 1625 to 1629 during
    Polish-Sweden Wars. Sweden also continues to expand Finland
    territory during this time as well.
  7. After siding with the victorious Protestant
    side during the 30 years war in Germany, Sweden gained parts of the
    German “Holy Roman Empire”. By now, it had expanded deeper within
    Finland as well.
  8. 1809:
    Finnish War with Russia. Russia captures all of Sweden’s Finnish
    territory. Finland is fashioned into the Grand Duchy of Finland
    within the Russian Empire.
  9. Finland declares independence from Russian
    after the

    Finland independence
    October Revolution (Communist Revolution), since the
    personal union with the monarch no longer applied, as the monarch
    had been overthrown. This would begin the Finnish Civil War, between
    Reds (pro-Soviets) and Whites (anti-Soviets). The Whites would win,
    causing Finland to escape Soviet control. Soviets would intervene on
    behalf of the Reds, while Germany intervened on behalf of the
    whites, helping them to victory. As a result of opening itself up to
    Germany, Finland was on the verge of falling under German
    occupation, but Germany surrendered to the Allies soon after, ending
    World War I, leaving Finland to become completely independent in
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Etymology (How
Name Received):

Named after the Finns,
the principal inhabitant of the region of modern Finland (“Land of the
Finns”). It is uncertain how Finns received their name. Probably word
from Baltic origin.

Finnish Culture:

Finland culture is reminiscent to that of other Scandinavian nations,
such as Sweden, in that it is egalitarian in nature, with a “live and
let live” mentality, and an emphasis on equality. Finland has always
been more rural, due to its position at away from the mainland
continent, and tucked away at the back of the Baltic Sea. Plus, it has
spent most of its history under foreign domination, primarily under
Swedish and Russian rule. As a result, its culture is influenced by both
of these nations.

Finland in

Advanced, capitalistic
economy. High unemployment has been a problem in this natural
resource-limited nation.
Government: Democratic Republic
Religion: Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland (National church, where
it is not a state church, but presides over certain religiously
ceremonial functions in government) 82.5%, None: 15.1%, remaining mostly
other Christian. Survey: 41% believe in God, 41% some other form of
intelligent design, 19% atheist/agnostic.
Demographics: Finn 93.4%, Swede 5.6% (long-time Swedish
possession during post-Middle Ages)
Foreign Policy: Primary concern is Russia, generally opposes
measures in EU that might strengthen Russia, or make EU members too
reliant on Russia, as it had long been its greatest nemesis/threat.
Sweden had been its greatest threat before Russia, with the dividing
point around the year 1700, but relations with Sweden and other Nordic
nations are currently very cooperative and friendly. Geopolitically
vulnerable to Russia, due to long, hard-to-defend border with Russia
(easy to transport troops across, no natural barriers), and low
population density.
Population: 5,244,749 (2008)

Formation of Nations (All European Nations)

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