Macedonia/Macedonians


Macedonia/Macedonians:
Development of a Nation
How Macedonia became
Macedonia,
and how the Macedonians became Macedonian.


MacedoniaHow
Macedonians as a people, and the country of Macedonia as a nation-state,
evolved and materialized into current form, in terms of ancestral
bloodlines, the Macedonian language, borders, culture, and even how they
received their name.


Ancestral Background
Development of Language
Formation of Borders
Etymology (How Name Received)
Culture
Macedonia in 2008


Macedonian Ancestral Background:


  1. Slavic tribes
    3000 BC – People along the Baltic coast
    centered around modern Lithuania begin speaking the
    Proto-Balto-Slavic language, a branch off from

    Proto-Indo-European
    . This serves as the genesis of the Slavic
    and Baltic languages/peoples.
  2. 1000 BC – A group splinters from the
    Proto-Balto-Slavic people, migrating southeast into modern Ukraine.
    This branch off group were the predecessors to Slavs, who would
    ultimately extend outward in all directions.
  3. In the 6th century, as Germanics
    migrated westward, a group of Slavs expanded southward to fill the
    void, inhabiting the northern border of the Byzantine Empire
    (continuation of the Roman Empire in the Greek world).
  4. 558 – Avars, a central Asian Turkic people,
    driven west into Europe (through modern Ukraine) by Persians and
    more powerful Turkic empires, came into contact with the Byzantines.
    They were paid off by the Byzantines to settle the area north of the
    Danube River, and to subdue barbarian Germanics remaining in the
    territory. The Avars succeeded in driving the Germans out of area,
    including the Lombards, who were driven into Italy, where they
    become the ruling class. At this time, large groups of Slavic
    peoples were settled north of the Danube as well. The Avar raids
    forced them south into the Balkan peninsula, where they settled
    lands abandoned by Germanic peoples, including modern Romania and
    Hungary. Slavic peoples would inhabit the entire Balkan region north
    of the Greek-inhabited lands at the very southern portion of the
    peninsula by 700.
  5. A
    substantial influx of Bulgars enter the area beginning in the 7th
    century, continuing until the territory was lost by the Bulgars for
    good in the 10th century. This Slavic-Bulgarian mix would
    serve as the basis for the modern Macedonian nationality.

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Development of Macedonian
Language:

  1. 3000 BC – People along the Baltic coast
    centered around modern Lithuania begin speaking the
    Proto-Balto-Slavic language, a branch off from

    Proto-Indo-European
    . This serves as the genesis of the Slavic
    and Baltic languages/peoples.
  2. 1000 BC – A group splinters from the
    Proto-Balto-Slavic people, migrating southeast into modern Ukraine.
    This branch off group were the predecessors to Slavs, who would
    ultimately extend outward in all directions. Their language evolves
    into the original Slav language, a sub-branch of Proto-Balto-Slavic,
    and the ancestral language to all Slav sub-branches, including
    Russian, Ukrainian, Polish, Serbian, Croatian and others.
  3. South Slav Language begins to separate from
    Western Slav Language in the 9th to 10th
    century, after Magyars settled into modern Hungary, separating the
    West Slavs (in modern Poland, Czech Republic and Slovakia) from the
    South Slavs (territory roughly approximating the former Yugoslavia).
  4. South
    Slav languages begin to diverge, barely distinguishable as separate
    dialects before the Ottoman conquests of the 14th and 15th
    centuries, then separating more during the time of the Ottoman
    conquests. Macedonian was the language that developed among the
    Slavs in modern day Macedonia.

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Formation of Macedonia
Borders:


  1. Balkans independence from Ottoman Empire
    In
    ancient times, the southern portion of Macedonia was home to Greek
    city states, then later the Kingdom of Macedon (expanded by
    Alexander the Great) beginning in 336 BC, while the northern section
    was part of the Thracian Kingdom of Dacia (an ancient Balkan
    people). The territory was conquered by Rome in the 2nd
    century BC.
  2. In the 6th century, as Germanics
    migrated westward, a group of Slavs expanded southward to fill the
    void, inhabiting the northern border of the Byzantine Empire
    (continuation of the Roman Empire in the Greek world).
  3. 558 – Avars, a central Asian Turkic people,
    driven west into Europe (through modern Ukraine) by Persians and
    more powerful Turkic empires, came into contact with the

    Balkan Wars
    Byzantines.
    They were paid off by the Byzantines to settle the area north of the
    Danube River, and to subdue barbarian Germanics remaining in the territory.
    The Avars succeeded in driving the Germans out of area, including
    the Lombards, who were driven into Italy, where they become the
    ruling class. At this time, large groups of Slavic peoples were
    settled north of the Danube as well. The Avar raids forced them
    south into the Balkan peninsula, where they settled lands abandoned
    by Germanic peoples, including modern Romania and Hungary. Slavic
    peoples would inhabit the entire Balkan region north of the
    Greek-inhabited lands at the very southern portion of the peninsula
    by 700.
  4. 837 – The region of modern Macedonia was
    incorporated into Bulgarian Empire.
  5. 972 – Modern Macedonia was conquered by
    Byzantines (continuation of the Roman

    Yugoslavia Wars
    Empire
    by the Greeks).
  6. Macedonia revolted against Byzantine, becoming
    independent in 1042.
  7. Around 1450, Macedonia was conquered by the
    Ottoman Empire (a Turkish, Muslim empire).
  8. In 1878, upon the defeat of the Ottomans in
    the Russo-Ottoman war, Macedonia breaks away from Ottomans, becoming
    absorbed into the Kingdom of Bulgaria (Bulgaria was also freed from
    Ottoman rule at this time).
  9. Macedonia was captured by Serbia during the
    Balkan Wars of 1912-13. Parts of historic Albania were added to
    Macedonia by the Serbs, resulting in a sizable Albanian population
    in Macedonia, even to this day. It remained part of Serbia, becoming
    part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in 1918 after WWI,
    with the name being changed to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929.
  10. Macedonia successfully declared independence
    in 1991.

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Etymology (How
Name Received):

Macedonia was named after
the ancient Macedonians (Greeks), who inhabited the land in ancient
times (Kingdom of Macedon, which produced Alexander the Great, and
brought Greek domination throughout much of the known world during the 4th
century BC).

Macedonian Culture:

While under Ottoman rule, the “Macedonians” lost their nationalistic
identity, since the Ottomans divided the European part of its empire
according to religion. Therefore, the Macedonians were administered to
by the Greeks. Upon being decoupled from the Ottoman Empire, and placed
under Serbian/Yugoslavian rule, Macedonians claimed Greek heritage, an
assertion vehemently opposed by Greece, resulting in tensions between
the two nations after Macedonia became independent.

Macedonian culture is influenced by a blend of neighboring cultures,
such as Greek, Slavic and Bulgarian (due to long-time Bulgarian control
of the region). Eastern Orthodoxy is an especially powerful unifying
force among Macedonians.

Macedonia in
2008:


Economy:
Least developed
industrial infrastructure of former Yugoslavia, so had to play catch up
upon dissolution of Yugoslavia. One of lowest per capita GDPs in Europe,
and one of least developed economies in Europe with extremely high
unemployment at about 35%. Suffered from guaranteed market due to
state-planned economy under the Yugoslavian communist regime, as well as
economic embargo imposed by Greece over disputed name (since Macedonia
is also a region within Greece). Since 1996 though, it has experienced
steady but slow growth.
Government: Democratic Republic
Religion: Macedonian Orthodox 65%, Muslim 33%. Demographics:
Macedonian 64%, Albanian 25% (western part historically part of Albanian
lands), Turkish 4% (holdovers from long time Ottoman rule).
Foreign Policy: Primary focus to become more integrated in
European community, and complete recognition as a sovereign state. Main
dispute with Greece is over the country’s name, which refers to
historical Greek kingdom (Macedon), and region within Greece. The matter
is still under negotiation.
Population: 2,061,315 (2008)



Formation of Nations (All European Nations)


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