Montenegro/Montenegrins


Montenegro/Montenegrins:
Development of a Nation
How Montenegro became
Montenegro,
and how the Montenegrins became Montenegrin.


MontenegroHow
Montenegrins as a people, and the country of Montenegro as a nation-state,
evolved and materialized into current form, in terms of ancestral
bloodlines, the Montenegrin language, borders, culture, and even how they
received their name.


Ancestral Background
Development of Language
Formation of
Borders

Etymology (How Name Received)
Culture
Montenegro in 2008


Slavic tribes
Montenegrin
Ancestral Background:

  1. 3000 BC – People along the Baltic coast
    centered around modern Lithuania begin speaking the
    Proto-Balto-Slavic language, a branch off from

    Proto-Indo-European
    . This serves as the genesis of the Slavic
    and Baltic languages/peoples.
  2. 1000 BC – A group splinters from the
    Proto-Balto-Slavic people, migrating southeast into modern Ukraine.
    This branch off group were the predecessors to Slavs, who would
    ultimately extend outward in all directions.
  3. In the 6th century, as Germanics
    migrated westward, a group of Slavs expanded southward to fill the
    void, inhabiting the northern border of the Byzantine Empire
    (continuation of the Roman Empire in the Greek world).
  4. 558 – Avars, a central Asian Turkic people,
    driven west into Europe (through modern Ukraine) by Persians and
    more powerful Turkic empires, came into contact with the Byzantines.
    They were paid off by the Byzantines to settle the area north of the
    Danube River, and to subdue barbarian Germanics remaining in the
    territory. The Avars succeeded in driving the Germans out of area,
    including the Lombards, who were driven into Italy, where they
    become the ruling class. At this time, large groups of Slavic
    peoples were settled north of the Danube as well. The Avar raids
    forced them south into the Balkan peninsula, where they settled
    lands abandoned by Germanic peoples, including modern Romania and
    Hungary. Slavic peoples would inhabit the entire Balkan region north
    of the Greek-inhabited lands at the very southern portion of the
    peninsula by 700. The Illyrians would be driven into a remote
    mountainous region in modern Albania, becoming forefathers to modern
    Albanians, which would also include a Slavic component from
    intermixing.
  5. In the
    middle of the 7th century, a group of Serbs were given
    land by the Byzantines (continuation of the Roman Empire by the
    Greeks) roughly equivalent to modern Montenegro, forming the
    Principality of Dolcea. It is this group of people that would
    ultimately give rise to the Montenegrin nationality, as they would
    forever remain distinct from their Serbian kin.

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Development of Montenegrin Language:

  1. 3000 BC – People along the Baltic coast
    centered around modern Lithuania begin speaking the
    Proto-Balto-Slavic language, a branch off from

    Proto-Indo-European
    . This serves as the genesis of the Slavic
    and Baltic languages/peoples.
  2. 1000 BC – A group splinters from the
    Proto-Balto-Slavic people, migrating southeast into modern Ukraine.
    This branch off group were the predecessors to Slavs, who would
    ultimately extend outward in all directions. Their language evolves
    into the original Slav language, a sub-branch of Proto-Balto-Slavic,
    and the ancestral language to all Slav sub-branches, including
    Russian, Ukrainian, Polish, Serbian, Croatian and others.
  3. South Slav Language begins to separate from
    Western Slav Language in the 9th to 10th
    century, after Magyars settled into modern Hungary, separating the
    West Slavs (in modern Poland, Czech Republic and Slovakia) from the
    South Slavs (territory roughly approximating the former Yugoslavia).
  4. By 10th
    century, Serbian begins to become a distinct language, having
    sufficiently diverged from other South Slav languages.

  5. Montenegrins continued to speak a South Slav language that was a
    synthesis between Croatian and Serbian, due to its geographical
    proximity to both. By 1850, this eclectic Slavic language was
    officially declared as a separate language under their own name,
    Montenegrin.

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Formation of Montenegro Borders:

  1. In the 6th century, as Germanics
    migrated westward, a group of Slavs expanded southward to fill the
    void, inhabiting the northern border of the Byzantine Empire
    (continuation of the Roman Empire in the Greek world).
  2. 558 – Avars, a central Asian Turkic people,
    driven west into Europe (through modern Ukraine) by Persians and
    more powerful Turkic empires, came into contact with the Byzantines.
    They were paid off by the Byzantines to settle the area north of the
    Danube River, and to subdue barbarian Germanics remaining in the territory.
    The Avars succeeded in driving the Germans out of area, including
    the Lombards, who were driven into Italy, where they become the
    ruling class. At this time, large groups of Slavic peoples were
    settled north of the Danube as well. The Avar raids forced them
    south into the Balkan peninsula, where they settled lands abandoned
    by Germanic peoples, including modern Romania and Hungary. Slavic
    peoples would inhabit the entire Balkan region north of the
    Greek-inhabited lands at the very southern portion of the peninsula
    by 700.
  3. In the
    middle of the 7th century, a group of Serbs were given
    land by the Byzantines (continuation of the Roman Empire by the
    Greeks) roughly equivalent to modern Montenegro, forming the
    Principality of Dolcea. It is this group of people that would
    ultimately give rise to the Montenegrin nationality, as they would
    forever remain distinct from their Serbian kin.

  4. Defeat of Austria-Hungary
    Dolcea
    comes under Bulgarian rule around 900, then under Serbian soon
    after.
  5. 960 –
    Byzantines take control of the region, including the Principality of
    Dolcea.
  6. Dolcea revolts against Byzantine, becoming
    independent in 1042.
  7. Doclea comes back under Serbia rule in 1186.
  8. 1496 – Dolcea is conquered by the Muslim,
    Turkic Ottoman Empire. Republic of Venice gains control of its
    coastal areas. Montenegro (Principality of Zeta as it was known in
    the Ottoman Empire) operated with autonomy, although officially a
    vassal to the Ottomans.
  9. 1797 – Montenegro regains all of its coastal
    territories back after the Republic of Venice is disbanded during
    the Napoleonic Wars.
  10. Montenegro becomes officially independent from
    the disintegrating Ottoman Empire in 1878.
  11. 1913 – Montenegro gained some territory during
    the Balkan Wars against Bulgaria,
    splitting
    territorial gains with Serbia.
  12. Montenegro was occupied by the Central Powers
    during WWI. After the defeat of the Central Powers in 1918,
    Montenegro joined the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. The
    name was changed to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929.

  13. Yugoslavia Wars
    1941 – Montenegro is annexed by Italy during
    WWII. It is added back to Yugoslavia at the end of the war, upon the
    defeat of the Axis Powers in 1945.
  14. The break up of Yugoslavia begins in 1991,
    with the start of the Yugoslavia Wars. Montenegro decides to stay
    connected to Serbia after , forming Republic of Serbia and
    Montenegro.
  15. In a
    2006 referendum, Montenegro elects to become independent from Serbia
    with a favorable vote of only 55.5%, just 0.5% above 55%
    requirement.

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Etymology (How Name
Received):

Montenegro
is based on the Slavic term for a mountainous region, first used to
describe the region of modern Montenegro in the 13th century.

Montenegrin Culture:

Similar to Serbian, as it shares the same roots, but also influenced by
a variety of cultures, as it traded hands several times through history.

Montenegro in 2008:


Economy:
Suffered due to break
up of Yugoslavia, as it initiated transition from communist economy to
free-market economy, eliminating guaranteed business for its industrial
sector. Sanctions were assessed against Serbia and Montenegro, as Serbia
was seen as the aggressor in the Wars by the international community,
further damaging the economy. Montenegro has experienced recent
improvements, even after separating from Serbia.
Government: Democratic Republic
Religion: Serbian Orthodox 74%, Muslim 18%, Roman Catholic 4%.

Demographics: Montenegrin 43%, Serb 32%, Bosniak 8%, Albanian 5%,
Other 12%. Those that identify themselves as Montenegrins versus Serbs
varies from survey to survey, due to the controversy/confusion as to
whether Montenegrins and Serbs are indeed separate or the same ethnic
groups.
Foreign Policy: Gaining full recognition of independence
(declared in 2006) in all nations throughout the world, including
Serbia. Already recognized by most, including all western nations. Goal
to achieve EU and NATO memberships.
Population: 678,177 (2008)



Formation of Nations (All European Nations)


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