Romania/Romanians


Romania/Romanians:
Development of a Nation
How Romania became
Romania,
and how the Romanians became Romanian.


RomaniaHow
Romanians as a people, and the country of Romania as a nation-state,
evolved and materialized into current form, in terms of ancestral
bloodlines, the Romanian language, borders, culture, and even how they
received their name.


Ancestral Background
Development of Language
Formation of Borders
Etymology (How Name Received)
Culture
Romania in 2008


Romanian Ancestral Background:

  1. 1500 BC – Romanian origins begin with the
    ancient Thracians that inhabited the eastern Balkan peninsula. They
    became a distinct nationality by around 1500 BC.
  2. 513 BC – Dacians, a Thracian tribe, expand to
    dominate the region of modern Romania and Bulgaria, forming a
    powerful kingdom.
  3. 106 – The Romans conquer the Dacians/Thracians
    (modern Romania and Bulgaria). Romans from other provinces
    (including Latin peoples out of Italy) would move into the region,
    intermixing with the existing Dacian inhabitants, an admixture that
    served as the basis as the ancestors to the modern Romanian people.
    Those in the region take upon themselves the name of the Roman
    Empire (Romanians).
  4. 271 – Rome pulled out of Romania due to
    ongoing Germanic invasions along the northern borders of this
    province, which bordered the Germanic territories. Germanic tribes
    would then share the region with the Romanians. Germanic peoples
    would eventually migrate out of Romania by 378, preventing a
    Germanic imprint on the Romanian genetic code. The Romanians would
    remain Latin, in culture and language, and would remain dominant
    force in region which is modern Romania. Unlike the rest of the
    Balkan peninsula north of Greece, they managed to resist
    assimilation into the Slavs, who were migrating into the region in
    massive waves. Huns shared the land with the Romanians beginning in
    the 4th century, but had evacuated by 435, leaving the
    region approximating modern Romania almost exclusively to the
    Romanians once again. The genetic composition of the Romanian
    nationality was now largely set.

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Development of Romanian
Language:

  1. The Dacians and Thracians were conquered by
    the Romans in 106, followed by a period of intense Romanization
    after the territory was colonized by Roman citizens throughout other
    parts of the empire, including Latin peoples from Italy. Vulgar
    Latin (language of the Romans) became the predominant language,
    displacing the Dacian/Thracian languages in the region. This served
    as the basis from which the modern Romanian language evolved.
  2. After the departure of the Romans in 271,
    Romania became isolated from other Latin speakers, causing it to
    branch off of the Latin language of the Romans into its own
    distinct, the first of the Romance languages to do so.
  3. In the
    middle ages (7th to 10th centuries), Romanian
    was influenced by surrounding Slav languages, due to the massive
    Slav migration into the Balkan peninsula. It was also influenced by
    Greek during the years the Romanian region spent under Byzantine
    rule. A little bit of Hungarian and Turkish influence were added as
    well, from years under Hungarian rule, and then Ottoman rule.

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Formation of Romanian
Borders:


  1. Romania and North Black Sea provinces
    1500
    BC – Romanian origins begin with the ancient Thracians that
    inhabited the eastern Balkan peninsula. They became a distinct
    nationality by around 1500 BC.
  2. 513 BC – Dacians, a Thracian tribe, expand to
    dominate the region of modern Romania and Bulgaria, forming a
    powerful kingdom.
  3. 106 – The Romans conquer the Dacians/Thracians
    (modern Romania and Bulgaria). Romans from other provinces
    (including Latin peoples out of Italy) would move into the region,
    intermixing with the existing Dacian inhabitants.
  4. 271 – Rome pulled out of Romania due to
    ongoing Germanic invasions along the northern borders of this
    province, which bordered the Germanic territories. Germanic

    Hungary
    tribes
    would then share the region with the Romanians. Germanic peoples
    would eventually migrate out of Romania by 378. Unlike the rest of
    the Balkan peninsula north of Greece, the Romanians managed to
    resist assimilation into the Slavs, who were migrating into the
    region in massive waves. Resisting Slavic assimilation helped define
    the concept of Romania.
  5. Huns shared the land with the Romanians
    beginning in the 4th century, but had evacuated by 435,
    leaving the region approximating modern Romania almost exclusively
    to the Romanians once again.
  6. 813 – The First Bulgarian Empire expanded to
    cover all of modern Romania, Moldova, down to Adrianople
    (encompassing all of modern Bulgaria).
  7. 1001 – Hungarians converted to Christianity,
    gaining favor with pope, and ending barbaric raids against their
    neighbors. They proceed to conquer Transylvania in modern Romania.
    Other parts of Romania broke into independent kingdoms, including
    Moldavia (encompassing modern Moldova) and Wallachia, although they
    still intermittently fell under Hungarian control.
  8. 1330 – Romanians just east of Hungary
    revolted, forming the Kingdom of Wallachia.

    Ottoman Empire Conquests
  9. 1359 – A Romanian prince broke away from
    Hungary, forming Moldavia near the Black Sea shorelines.
  10. 1415 – Wallachia was conquered by the Ottoman
    Empire (a Muslim, Turkic people), before regaining independence
    again in 1422.
  11. 1476 – Wallachia fell under Ottoman reign
    again, but with the concession of self government (except for
    foreign policy).
  12. 1526 – Transylvania, which had also
    endured under the Hungarian crown since 1003, became a
    semi-autonomous province in the Ottoman Empire.
  13. 1538 – Moldavia falls under Ottoman reign, but
    with the right of self government (except for foreign policy).
  14. 1599 – An Austria general (within Austrian
    Habsburg Dynasty) gained control over Transylvania, brutally forcing
    Roman Catholicism upon the largely Protestant population, commencing
    a reign of terror lasting until 1604. The Protestants would then
    revolt, forcing a peace with Austria, where religious tolerance
    prevailed. The Ottomans still officially possessed the region, but
    failed to exert control.

  15. Balkans independence from Ottoman Empire
    1711
    – After it was discovered that Moldavia was negotiating with the
    Russians during the Russo-Turkish Wars, the Ottomans instituted
    direct rule in Moldavia. The same fate befell Wallachia in 1714.
  16. 1848 – Romanians in Transylvania revolt
    against Hapsburg Austria, driving Austria out.
  17. 1859 – As part of the Crimean War, Moldavia
    gains the southern part of Bessarabia, then combining with Wallachia
    to form Romania, while still remaining a vassal to the Ottoman
    Empire.
  18. 1878 – After the Ottoman Empire was defeated
    by Russia in the final Russo-Turkish War, it agreed to hand Cyprus
    over to the United Kingdom. Romania then declared independence.
    Russia desired to annex Romania, Serbia, Montenegro and Bulgaria,
    but

    Balkans Campaign
    the
    United Kingdom prevented it from doing so with a show of force.
    Following the war, Romania acquired Dobruja along
    its southeast border, but it was forced to cede southern Bessarabia
    to Russia.
  19. 1881 – With the weakening of the Ottoman
    Empire, and with Russia and Austria also weakened (both had long
    attempted to gain control of the region), Moldavia and Wallachia
    took the opportunity to declare independence, forming the Kingdom of
    Romania.
  20. 1917 – Bessarabia separated from Russia,
    joining its historical compatriots of Romania.
  21. 1918 – Austria and Germany are defeated in
    World War I, withdrawing from the Kingdom of Romania. Transylvania
    and Bessarabia elect to join the Kingdom of
    Romania, after being freed from Austria-Hungary control.
  22. 1940
    – Pressured by the Russians, and weakened by German invasions from
    the west during World War II, Romania cedes territories that
    comprise modern Moldova to Russia (part of former Moldavia). It is
    formed as the Moldavian SSR, a client state to the USSR. Moldova was
    comprised of about 2/3 of Bessarabia, and about 1/3 of Romania
    proper. The USSR also partitioned Northern Bukovina and Budjak from
    Romania, assigning them to the Ukraine SSR. Romania would then join
    the Axis Powers later in World War II against Russia in an attempt
    to regain lost territory. Hungary also joined the fray, and annexed
    Northern Transylvania from Romania, but was forced to return it at
    the end of WWII.

  23. Soviet Union takes Moldova
    1940 (World War II) – Nazi sponsored the territorial gain
    of Southern Dobruja for Bulgaria, which had been taken by Romania during
    Balkan Wars. Bulgaria would then fall under Nazi occupation in 1941.
    After the war, the Allies would allow Bulgaria to keep Southern
    Dobruja, finalizing Bulgaria’s and Romania’s modern borders.
  24. The Soviet occupation after WWII led to a
    communist government in Romania.
  25. With the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990,
    Romania became an independent, democratic republic.

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Etymology (How
Name Received):

Romania was a Latin term
meaning “Roman Realm”, after the region became highly Romanized
following Roman conquest and colonization.

Romanian Culture:

Romanians historically identified closely with Roman culture,
maintaining their version of the old Latin language, and perpetuating
Roman customs. However, Romania would languish under foreign rule during
most of its history, perhaps most notably under the Muslim Ottoman
Empire, under which it remained for a period of more than four
centuries.

Aside from the Latin language, which became influenced by a
variety of other foreign languages, the tenets of Romanian culture were
essentially lost, as the Romanians emerged from Ottoman rule in the 19th
century with a clean slate, from a cultural point of view.

Romania
turned its gaze westward, emulating Western European culture (French in
particular) as it sought to reinvent itself as it entered the 20th
century.

Romania in
2008:


Economy:
Since becoming
independent from USSR in 1990, suffered severe economic issues until
after 2000, when growth began to increase steadily. Now at risk of
inflation, as most European economies are (but especially those with
less established/advanced economies, particularly in Eastern Europe).
Economy now largely privatized.
Government: Democratic Republic
Religion: Eastern Orthodox 87%, Protestant 7.5%, Roman Catholic
5%, Muslim less than 1%,
Demographics: Romanian 90%, Hungarian 7% (holdovers from past
Hungarian rule), Roma 2.5%.
Foreign Policy: Joined NATO, EU. Friendly with all countries in
the region. Shares common history and language as Moldova, which is
historically part of Romania, but Moldova has resisted attempts to
unify, or to integrate more closely with Romania, politically or
economically.
Population: 22,246,862 (2008)



Formation of Nations (All European Nations)


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