Detailed Timeline of European History


 Detailed Timeline of
European History


Pre-World War I
(1816-1914)
 << World War I (1914-19)
>>

Inter-War Period (1919-39)


Great War/World War I
(1914
– 1919)

A New Terrible Type of Warfare, New
Nations Created in Europe

WWI Timeline:  |
1914
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 1915

 |

1916

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1917

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1918

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1919

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Effect of
World War I on Each Country


Italian invasion of AustriaItaly Joins Allies
(June, 1915):
The allies persuade Italy
to leave the Triple Alliance with the German Empire and Austria-Hungary,
and join their side instead. Although allies with Germany and Austria,
Italy did not agree to join WWI, since it understood that the alliance
was defensive in nature, and viewed the Central Power’s involvement as
pre-emptive. In 1915, the allies offer Italy various territories across
the Adriatic Sea, in Slovenia, Croatia, and Albania. Italy is persuaded,
entering the war in June of 1915 by mounting an offensive strike against
Austria-Hungary across their shared border.

(Timeline Continued Below)



Italy Unsuccessfully Invades
Austria-Hungary (June, 1915):
The
Italians met the Austrians along the Italy-Austria border in the Alps in
1915. The massive Italian army outnumbered the Austrians about by 2 to
1. However, the Austrians held a superior, higher-ground


Austria conquers Serbia
position in the
Alps, negating the numerical advantage of the Italians. Plus, the
Italians were poorly equipped. Italian commanders attempted several
frontal assaults in 1915, but were badly defeated each time.

Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria Conquer
Serbia (Nov, 1915):
In 1915, the Central
Powers finally persuaded Bulgaria to join their side, with the promise
of the southern portion of Serbia (approximate to modern Macedonia) as
their spoil of victory. With Austria-Hungary allocating greater numbers
of troops, and the additional push from the SE by the Bulgarians, the
Serbian army was overwhelmed. By the end of 1915, Serbia was completely
conquered by the Central Powers, with Bulgaria taking possession of the
southern portion as promised, and Austria-Hungary taking possession of
the remainder. The surviving Serbian troops would escape to Albania,
from where they would launch attacks against Austria-Hungary and
Bulgaria throughout the duration of the war.

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Trench warfareStalemate Along Western Front
(1915):
Throughout 1915, both sides
essentially held their ground. The ground along this swathe of territory
was fairly soft, enabling both sides to dig serviceable trenches. Plus,
machine gun technology made it difficult to move the enemy side from its
entrenched position. The Germans introduced chemcial warfare to the
battlefield, killing thousands. However, they were unable to capitalize.
The Germans continue to occupy Belgium and Luxembourg throughout 1915,
forcing many of them into battle.


Germany and Austria-Hungary Turn Tables
on Russia, Conquering
Lithuania and Poland (1915):

Russia retreat
With the Western Front largely set for the time being, and Russia
gaining ground inside Austria-Hungary, Germany redeploys the larger
proportion of its army to the Eastern Front. This turns the tide of the
war along the Eastern Front, as Russia is driven out completely out of
Austria-Hungary. The unified German-Austrian battalions continue east,
as Russia is forced to retreat. By the end of 1915, Germany and Austria
conquer Lithuania and Poland from Russia.

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Stalemate between Russian and Ottoman
forces in Caucasus (1915).


Ottoman EmpireOttoman Genocide Against Armenians
Begins (1915):
Reports of Armenians
switching sides to join the Russians in battle fostered distrust among
the Turkish Ottomans. Armenians were an ethnic group within the NE
portion of the Ottoman Empire. As Allies closed in, 250 prominent
Armenians were executed. This was followed by a mass deportation of
Armenians to the Syrian desert. Armenians were stripped of their assets,
and marched into this barren land without sufficient food, water or
supplies. Soldiers orchestrating the exile allowed and participated in
atrocities such as robbing, raping and indiscriminate murdering. Many
also died of starvation and disease. As many as 500,000 would die during
this mass deportation.

German U-Boat Attacks
(1915):
German U-boats (submarines)
begin the tactic of sinking supply ships in the North Sea and North
Atlantic Ocean to gain control over the supply lines between Britain and
U.S. This tactic would later sink a civilian passenger ship, killing a
number of Americans, which would help provoke the U.S. into the war.

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UK Naval Blockade of Germany
(1915):
UK maintains effective naval
blockade of Germany, placing pressure on their ability to bring in
necessary supplies.

Allies Attempt to Invade Ottoman Empire
(1915):

Turkish Straits: Ottomans inflict mass casualties upon the
invading Allies, successfully defending European portion of their
Empire.
Iraq: Ottomans decisively defeat British in their attempt to
invade Mesopotamia.
Arabia: British successfully incite Arab revolts against the
Ottomans on the Sinai Peninsula and in Palestine.


Allied invasion of Ottoman Empire

(Timeline Continued Below)

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Ottomans unsuccessfully try to conquer
Suez Canal (Egypt) from the British (1915).

African Theater
(1915)
:

West Africa: Continued fighting between French/British versus the
Germans in German colonies of Kamerun and Togoland. Allies maintain
upper hand.
South Africa: British end the Boar rebellions and gain their
cooperation against the Germans. British colony of South Africa conquers
German colony of South West Africa in 1915.

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WWI Timeline:  |
1914
|
 1915
 |

1916

|

1917

|

1918

|

1919

|

Next:
World War I (1916)

Previous:
World War I (1914)

Effect of
World War I on Each Country


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