Detailed Timeline of European History


 Detailed Timeline of
European History


Inter-War Period (1919-39)

<< World War II (1939-45) >>

Post-War Era (1945-89)

World War II (1939 – 1945)
Devastation of Europe, Change in
Global Balance of Power

WWII Timeline:  |
1939
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1940
  |

1941
  | 

1942 
|

1943
  |

1944
  |

1945
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Effect of
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World War II Europe


Germany Fails to Capture Moscow
(Jan, 1942):
The Battle of Moscow
officially ends in January of 1942, but battles would continue in the
outskirts of the city, with the Nazi army maintaining a position
uncomfortably close to the Soviet capital.

(Timeline Continued Below)


German Siege of Leningrad Continues
(1942):
During 1942, the Soviets
attempt multiple offensives against the Nazi army, all of which fail.
However, they do manage to undermine the Nazis’ progress toward
destroying the city, perpetuating the war of attrition.

Germany Initiates the Battle of
Stalingrad, USSR (July, 1942):
A German
offensive in an attempt to capture Stalingrad, beginning July 17, 1942.
By its completion in 1943, it would become the deadliest battle in human
history. The Nazi army penetrated inside the city, engaging in urban
warfare with the Soviets.

USSR Achieves Turning Point Against
Germany (1942):
Germany’s rapid advance
of 1941 did not achieve its goal of quickly forcing the USSR into
surrender and submission to Nazi Germany. This bought the Soviets enough
time to concentrate their defenses at key flash points, such as Moscow,
Leningrad and Stalingrad. In addition, it forced Germany into a war of
attrition, requiring a continual resupply of supplies, equipment and
manpower, which was difficult since they were so deep into enemy
territory. It was especially difficult in cold-weather months, which was
nearly half the year in the strategic parts of the USSR. This would
prove to be the turning point of the war, by depleting a substantial
portion of the German army and resources.

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Germany Directly Occupies Vichy France
and Corsica (Nov 11, 1942):
After the
Allies and Free French Forces conquered French North Africa from Vichy
France, Hitler decided to move in and occupy Vichy France and Corsica to
prevent Allied forces from simply crossing the Mediterranean to capture
Southern France.

Allies Turn the Tide Against Germany in
Battle of the Atlantic (1942):
During
the first half of 1942, U-boats were successful at sinking U.S. vessels
off the shore of the eastern U.S. coast. By the second half of the year,
the Allies successfully employed convoys, while developing new
technologies (such as improved radar and anti-submarine mortars)
enabling the effective destruction of large numbers of U-boat
submarines, turning the tide toward the favor of the Allies in the
Battle of the Atlantic.

Asian/Pacific Theater
(1942):
At onset of 1942, the Japanese
enjoy the upper hand against the Allies (primarily consisting of British
and British Commonwealth). They maintain UK, Dutch and French colonies
captured in 1941, while gaining ground in Burma. However, they suffer
military defeats to the U.S. during the latter half of the year, due in
large part to the fact that the Americans manage to break Japanese naval
codes.

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African Theater
(1942)
:
North Africa:
Allied troops defeat the Germans at Alexandria
(Egypt), and begin to push them back into Italy-controlled Libya.
Madagascar: Allied troops capture the island off the coast of
East Africa from Vichy France.

British India Problems
(1942):
UK entered their colony of
British India into WWII. Their East Indian subjects were eager
participants in WWI, but support was mixed for WWII. Many Indians argued
that the UK did not deserve their service, based on atrocities against
Indian people. However, 2,250,000 volunteered, making it the largest
volunteer army in the history of the world. Nonetheless, the Indian
National Congress (Indian Independence Movement) simultaneously drafted
demands of complete independence, accompanied by non-violent protests
throughout the nation. However, other factions also arose that did not
follow this credo, resulting in bombings and other violent acts. The
Indian National Army was also created, with the support of enemies of
the Allies, particularly Japan. They fought against British and British
Indian forces in the jungles of Burma and Bengal, resulting in an Allied
victory. It did succeed in sparking mutinies among British Indian
soldiers fighting on behalf of the UK, and generated support for the
Indian independence movement. Furthermore, the UK was now faced with the
realization that their British Indian subjects were no longer reliable
as a fighting force when needed. This all contributed to the realization
of Indian independence from the UK in 1947.

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WWII Timeline:  |
1939
|

1940
  |

1941
  | 
1942 
|

1943
  |

1944
  |

1945
  |

Next:
World War II (1943)

Previous:
World War II (1941)

Effect of
World War II on Each Country


Go to European
History Interactive Map

World War
II Interactive Map

 

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