Detailed Timeline of European History


 Detailed Timeline of
European History


World War II (1939-45)

<< Effect of WW II on
Each Country

>> Post-War Era (1945-89)

Effect of World War II on Each
Country

Devastation of Europe, Change in
Global Balance of Power


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II Interactive Map

World War II
(1939 – 1945)


Albania

Before WWII: Invaded and conquered by Italy in 1939, becoming
puppet state.
During WWII: Remained under Italian occupation until 1943, when
the Allies invaded and gained control over the southern half of Italy.
Nazi Germany moved in to take control over the northern half of Italy,
as well as Italy’s foreign possessions, including Albania. Albania
aggressively protected its Jewish population while under Nazi control.
It was then conquered by the advancing Soviets in 1944.
After WWII: Albania becomes a communist government under the
Soviet sphere of influence.
WWII Affiliation: Conquered and occupied by Italy in 1939.
Liberated with help of Allies in 1944.
Casualties:
Total Deaths: 28,200 (Rank = 19 / 27)
Total Deaths % of Pop.: 2.6% (Rank = 12 / 27)
Military Deaths: 28,000 (Rank = 11 / 21)
Military Deaths % of Pop.: 2.6% (Rank = 5 / 21)
Civilian Deaths: 200 (Rank = 24 / 27)
Civilian Deaths % of Pop.: 0% (Rank = 24 / 27)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths: 10 (Rank = 20 / 21)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths % of Jewish Pop.: 5% (19 / 21)


(Continued Below)


Austria

Before WWII: After turbulent and discouraging interwar period
(coming off defeat in WWI), Austrians vote 99% in favor of being united
with Germany, resulting in the Nazi annexation in 1938, a blatant
violation of the post-WWI treaty.
During WWII: Austrians participated in WWII alongside the
Germans.
After WWII: “Liberated” by Allies in 1945. When it was clear that
the Allies would capture Germany, and that the Axis Powers would be
defeated, prominent Austrians declare Austrian independence from
Germany. As a result, Austria is treated less harshly than Germany,
being occupied by the Allies for only 10 years after the conclusion of
the war.
WWII Affiliation: Annexed by Germany (Axis) in 1939. Conquered by
Soviet Union (Allies) in 1944.
Casualties:
Total Deaths: 105,500 (Rank = 15 / 27)
Total Deaths % of Pop.: 1.6% (Rank = 15 / 27)
Military Deaths: 0 (Rank = 21 / 21)
Military Deaths % of Pop.: 0% (Rank = 21 / 21)
Civilian Deaths: 105,500 (Rank = 14 / 27)
Civilian Deaths % of Pop.: 1.6% (Rank = 13 / 27)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths: 65,000 (Rank = 13 / 21)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths % of Jewish Pop.: 26% (16 / 21)


Belarus

Before WWII: A Soviet Socialist Republic.
During WWII: Nazi army conquers Belarus SSR as part of its Soviet
invasion of 1941. Regained by the USSR in 1944, after the Red Army
forces the Nazis to retreat back toward Germany.
After WWII: Re-established as a Soviet Socialist Republic.
WWII Affiliation: Joined Axis Powers in 1941 After government
overthrown by communist regime in 1944, joined Allies.
Casualties:
Total Deaths: 25,000 (Rank = 20 / 27)
Total Deaths % of Pop.: 0.4% (Rank = 21 / 27)
Military Deaths: 22,000 (Rank = 13 / 21)
Military Deaths % of Pop.: 0.3% (Rank = 12 / 21)
Civilian Deaths: 3,000 (Rank = 19 / 27)
Civilian Deaths % of Pop.: 0% (Rank = 22 / 27)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths: 0 (Rank = 21 / 21)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths % of Jewish Pop.: 0% (21 / 21)

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Belgium

Invaded by Nazis in 1940 to provide base of operations for its invasion
of France. Liberated by the Allies as they closed in on Germany in
1944/45.
Affiliation: Neutral until conquered by Nazi Germany in 1940.
Liberated by Allies in 1944.
Casualties:
Total Deaths: 86,100 (Rank = 17 / 27)
Total Deaths % of Pop.: 1% (Rank = 17 / 27)
Military Deaths: 12,100 (Rank = 16 / 21)
Military Deaths % of Pop.: 0.1% (Rank = 16 / 21)
Civilian Deaths: 74,000 (Rank = 15 / 27)
Civilian Deaths % of Pop.: 0.9% (Rank = 14 / 27)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths: 24,400 (Rank = 14 / 21)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths % of Jewish Pop.: 40.7% (11 / 21)


Bulgaria

During WWII: Declared neutrality, but was forced to join Axis
Powers by Nazis in 1941, who demanded use of Bulgarian lands to launch
invasion of Greece. Participated in Axis invasion of Yugoslavia, gaining
Macedonia as a result. Conquered and occupied by invading Soviets in
1944.
After WWII: Under USSR influence, establishes a Communist
government, closely tied to the Soviet Union.


Czechoslovakia

Before WWII: Invaded & occupied by Nazi-Germany in 1939 before
the start of the war. Southern portion given to Hungary as a reward for
joining the Axis Powers.
During WWII: Remained under Nazi occupation until 1944, when
liberated by the Soviets.
After WWII: Came under Soviet influence, which ensured a post-war
communist government.
WWII Affiliation: Conquered by Germany (Axis) in 1939. Conquered
by Soviet Union (Allies) in 1944.
Casualties:
Total Deaths: 345,000 (Rank = 11 / 27)
Total Deaths % of Pop.: 2.3% (Rank = 14 / 27)
Military Deaths: 25,000 (Rank = 12 / 21)
Military Deaths % of Pop.: 0.2% (Rank = 15 / 21)
Civilian Deaths: 320,000 (Rank = 8 / 27)
Civilian Deaths % of Pop.: 2.1% (Rank = 12 / 27)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths: 277,000 (Rank = 4 / 21)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths % of Jewish Pop.: 77.6% (5 / 21)


Denmark

Invaded by Nazis in 1940 to prevent the UK and/or France from doing the
same, in a race to gain control over Danish resources, and perhaps most
importantly, to serve as a launching point for an invasion of
strategically-critical Norway. Occupied until 1945 when Nazis
surrendered. Once occupied by Nazis, Denmark is no longer able to
administer to Iceland, which consequently becomes independent.
WWII Affiliation: Neutral. Invaded and occupied by Nazi Germany
in 1940 (Axis Powers). Germany forced to withdraw in 1945.
Casualties:
Total Deaths: 3,200 (Rank = 23 / 27)
Total Deaths % of Pop.: 0.1% (Rank = 23 / 27)
Military Deaths: 2,100 (Rank = 19 / 21)
Military Deaths % of Pop.: 0% (Rank = 18 / 21)
Civilian Deaths: 1,100 (Rank = 23 / 27)
Civilian Deaths % of Pop.: 0% (Rank = 21 / 27)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths: 100 (Rank = 19 / 21)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths % of Jewish Pop.: 1.7% (20 / 21)

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Estonia

Before WWII: Gained independence after WWI, but struggled as an
independent nation during interwar era.
During WWII: USSR invades and occupies Estonia in 1939/40.
Remains under Soviet control until Germany decides to invade the USSR in
1941, capturing Estonia that same year. Nazi occupation ends in 1944,
when the USSR reverses the Nazi advance, pursuing the Nazi army west,
back toward Germany.
After WWII: The USSR retains possession of Estonia, establishing
direct rule after the war.
WWII Affiliation: Neutral. Conquered and occupied by USSR in
1940. Conquered and occupied by Nazis (Axis) in 1941. Reconquered by
USSR in 1944 (Allies).
Casualties:
Total Deaths: 49,000 (Rank = 18 / 27)
Total Deaths % of Pop.: 4.3% (Rank = 9 / 27)
Military Deaths: 0 (Rank = 21 / 21)
Military Deaths % of Pop.: 0% (Rank = 21 / 21)
Civilian Deaths: 49,000 (Rank = 17 / 27)
Civilian Deaths % of Pop.: 4.3% (Rank = 5 / 27)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths: 1,000 (Rank = 16 / 21)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths % of Jewish Pop.: 20% (17 / 21)


Finland

Forced into the Winter War with the USSR, which invades Finland as part
of a non-aggression pact with Nazis, where they secretly divided Eastern
& Central Europe between themselves. Finland succeeds in defending
itself against the USSR, but loses a small portion of territory to the
Soviets. Joined Nazi Germany as part of the Axis Powers in 1941 because
of a common enemy in the USSR. Remained a democratic and independent
despite Nazi attempts to assume control. Kept its Jewish population safe
from Nazi persecution.
WWII Affiliation: Neutral. Invaded by USSR in 1939. Joined Axis
Powers in 1941, aiding Nazi forces in invasion of USSR. Signed peace
treaty with USSR in 1944.
Casualties:
Total Deaths: 97,000 (Rank = 16 / 27)
Total Deaths % of Pop.: 2.6% (Rank = 13 / 27)
Military Deaths: 95,000 (Rank = 10 / 21)
Military Deaths % of Pop.: 2.6% (Rank = 4 / 21)
Civilian Deaths: 2,000 (Rank = 21 / 27)
Civilian Deaths % of Pop.: 0.1% (Rank = 20 / 27)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths: 0 (Rank = 21 / 21)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths % of Jewish Pop.: 0% (21 / 21)


France

Before WWII: Leading European power next to the UK. After being
devastated during WWI (despite being on victors’ side) and the Global
Depression, France was not in a position to oppose Germany during the
1930s, as it began to assert itself once again, in violation of WWI
peace treaty terms.
During WWII: Along with UK, declares war on Germany in 1939, upon
Nazi invasion of Poland. Invaded by Germany in 1940, ending the Third
Republic with the beginning of the Nazi occupation of France. The
wartime Vichy government took control in Southern France, which fully
cooperated with the Nazis, including carrying out anti-semitism policies
(such as extermination camps). Free French Forces in North Africa would
join Allies in 1942, the same year the Nazis occupied all of France. The
Free French Forces would help the Allied forces to liberate France,
evicting the Nazis from France in 1944. France would lose Vietnam to
Japan, but would restore control at the end of the war. France was
forced to grant independence to Syria and Lebanon before the war ended.

After WWII: France was irreversibly weakened, economically,
militarily and psychologically. With increasing anti-colonial sentiment
within France and throughout the world, colonies began to demand
independence. Unlike the United Kingdom, France was resistant to
granting independence to colonies, and fought to maintain its empire,
resulting in long, violent conflicts, such as the war with Algeria. In
the end, all French colonies would attain independence.
WWII Affiliation: Originally on side of Allies. Falls under Axis
Powers when conquered by Germany in 1940. Rejoins Allies when liberated
in 1944.
Casualties:
Total Deaths: 567,600 (Rank = 7 / 27)
Total Deaths % of Pop.: 1.4% (Rank = 16 / 27)
Military Deaths: 217,600 (Rank = 9 / 21)
Military Deaths % of Pop.: 0.5% (Rank = 10 / 21)
Civilian Deaths: 350,000 (Rank = 7 / 27)
Civilian Deaths % of Pop.: 0.8% (Rank = 15 / 27)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths: 83,000 (Rank = 9 / 20)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths % of Jewish Pop.: 36.9% (13 / 20)

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Germany

Before WWII: Suffers the effects of its defeat in WWI during the
1920s and early 30s. The subsequent economic collapse and depressed
national morale enabled the fanatical Nazi party to rise to power. The
Nazi party turns Germany around during the 1930s, providing the
political currency necessary to expand its power throughout Central
Europe. Nazi Germany annexed Austria in 1938 (with approval of Austrian
voters), then invaded Czechoslovakia and Poland in 1939, occupying both.

During WWII: Nazi Germany’s invasion of Poland represents the
line in the sand for the Allied powers, provoking declarations of war
from the UK and France. In 1940, Germany invades Denmark, Norway (to
protect neutrality against Allies, capitalize on their resources, sea
access for U-boat attacks). They also invade Netherlands, Belgium and
Luxembourg for staging grounds needed for the pending invasion of
France. Germany then proceeds to invade France in 1940 as well,
controlling the entire nation (the north by direct occupation, and the
south via a puppet regime). Unsuccessfully invaded Britain in 1940.
Began exterminating Jews and other “undesirables” en masse in 1940. In
1941, Germany invades Yugoslavia, Bulgaria and Greece, occupying each.
Hitler then decides to launch an invasion against the Soviet Union in
1941, conquering most of Eastern Europe, including a large chunk of
Western Russia. Compromised and thinly-spread supply lines would prove
to be the downfall of Nazi army, as the Soviets would chase the German
army all the way back to Germany by 1944/45. The Western Allies would
enter Germany from the west in 1945, bringing the Nazi era to an abrupt
end as Allies closed in on Berlin.
After WWII: Germany was utterly devastated. Allied fighter jets
carpet bombed cities, killing many, including civilians. Many were
forced to fight to defend nation, leading to high loss of life. The
nation was financially destroyed, due to the Nazi’s desperate spending
to feed the war machine, even down to the final days. Its captors
partitioned the nation, tightly controlling all aspects of life in
Germany, while also implementing punitive sanctions. The nation was also
disgraced due to the atrocities carried out, especially the Holocaust.
Germany and its citizens basically had to start over from less than
nothing. Germany would not be unified again until 1990.
WWII Affiliation: Axis Powers
Casualties:
Total Deaths: 7,393,000 (Rank = 2 / 27)
Total Deaths % of Pop.: 10.6% (Rank = 5 / 27)
Military Deaths: 5,533,000 (Rank = 2 / 21)
Military Deaths % of Pop.: 7.9% (Rank = 1 / 21)
Civilian Deaths: 1,860,000 (Rank = 3 / 27)
Civilian Deaths % of Pop.: 2.7% (Rank = 10 / 27)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths: 160,000 (Rank = 6 / 21)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths % of Jewish Pop.: 28.3% (15 / 21)


Greece

During WWII: Defends itself against Italian invasion in 1940.
This compels Nazi Germany to join the effort to conquer Greece in 1941.
Upon conquering Greece, Germany partitions it amongst itself, Italy and
Bulgaria, retaining the most valuable regions for itself. Greece is
liberated by the Allies in 1944.
After WWII: In post-war Greece, two competing factions engage in
the struggle for control of Greece, initiating the Greek Civil War
between the pro-communist and pro-democracy movements. The pro-democracy
faction achieved victory in 1949, turning Greece into a west-leaning
nation, resistant of Soviet influence.
WWII Affiliation: Joined Allies in 1940 when invaded by Italy.
Conquered by Axis Powers in 1941. Liberated with help of Allies in 1944.

Casualties:
Total Deaths: 311,300 (Rank = 12 / 27)
Total Deaths % of Pop.: 4.3% (Rank = 8 / 27)
Military Deaths: 20,000 (Rank = 15 / 21)
Military Deaths % of Pop.: 0.3% (Rank = 13 / 21)
Civilian Deaths: 291,300 (Rank = 9 / 27)
Civilian Deaths % of Pop.: 4% (Rank = 6 / 27)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths: 71,300 (Rank = 11 / 21)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths % of Jewish Pop.: 71.3% (6 / 21)


(Continued Below)

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Hungary

Before WWII: Was awarded the southern portion of Nazi-conquered
Czechoslovakia by Germany, as incentive for joining the Axis Powers.
During WWII: Cooperated with Nazi Germany. Gained northern
portion of Serbia when the Axis Powers conquered Yugoslavia. Fell under
Soviet occupation in 1944, when the Red Army advanced westward toward
Germany.
After WWII: The USSR helped to install a communist government.
Hungary was forced to return gains from Czechoslovakia and Serbia.
WWII Affiliation: Joined Axis Powers in 1940. Occupied by Germany
in 1944 when it wanted to sign peace treaty with Allies. Conquered by
Soviets later in 1944.
Casualties:
Total Deaths: 580,000 (Rank = 6 / 27)
Total Deaths % of Pop.: 6.4% (Rank = 7 / 27)
Military Deaths: 300,000 (Rank = 6 / 21)
Military Deaths % of Pop.: 3.3% (Rank = 3 / 21)
Civilian Deaths: 280,000 (Rank = 11 / 27)
Civilian Deaths % of Pop.: 3.1% (Rank = 9 / 27)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths: 200,000 (Rank = 5 / 21)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths % of Jewish Pop.: 44.9% (10 / 21)


Ireland

Remained neutral, avoiding devastation of war. But thousands of Irish
volunteered to fight in British Army, and supported Allied effort.

WWII Affiliation: Neutral
Casualties:
Total Deaths: 200 (Rank = 26 / 27)
Total Deaths % of Pop.: 0% (Rank = 26 / 27)
Military Deaths: 0 (Rank = 21 / 21)
Military Deaths % of Pop.: 0% (Rank = 21 / 21)
Civilian Deaths: 200 (Rank = 25 / 27)
Civilian Deaths % of Pop.: 0. (Rank = 25 / 27)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths: 0 (Rank = 21 / 21)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths % of Jewish Pop.: 0 (21 / 21)


Italy

Before WWII: Italy was disappointed with the meager territorial
gains ceded by its fellow Allies as a victor in WWI. Economic and
political struggles after WWI led to intense nationalism, paving the way
for Mussolini’s fascist party, which becomes friendly with Nazi Germany,
as they share similar views and geopolitical objectives. Invaded Albania
in 1939 to help to achieve its own expansionist ambitions, encouraged by
Germany’s aggressiveness.
During WWII: Italy enters into Axis Powers alliance with Germany
& Japan in 1940, joining the war started by Germany in 1939. Proceeds to
attack UK and French possessions in Somaliland (East Africa, Horn of
Africa), successfully capturing enemy territories. Also conquers
territories in the Balkans, across the Adriatic Sea, including coastal
lands of Yugoslavia and Greece. Allies eventually turn the tables,
forcing Italy to surrender East African territories in 1942, and North
African territories by 1943. This sets the stage for an Allied invasion
of the Italian homeland in 1943, leading to the Allied conquest of
Southern Italy within the year, and most of Italy by the end of 1944.
This forces Italy to surrender, to arrest and imprison Mussolini, and
switch to the Allied side for the remainder of the war.
After WWII: At the conclusion of the war, communism gains in
popularity, as Italy’s experience with democracy/capitalism in post-WWI
years was unpleasant. The U.S. conducts a massive PR campaign to prevent
the communist party from taking power in Italy, helping to tilt Italy
toward the democratic side. Consequently, a democratic republic is
established in 1948 after a popular election, bringing Italy under
influence of the West rather than the USSR.
WWII Affiliation: Joined Axis Powers in 1940. When conquered by
Allies in 1943, switched to the Allied Powers.
Casualties:
Total Deaths: 454,500 (Rank = 8 / 27)
Total Deaths % of Pop.: 1% (Rank = 18 / 27)
Military Deaths: 301,400 (Rank = 5 / 21)
Military Deaths % of Pop.: 0.7% (Rank = 9 / 21)
Civilian Deaths: 153,000 (Rank = 13 / 27)
Civilian Deaths % of Pop.: 0.3% (Rank = 17 / 27)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths: 8,000 (Rank = 15 / 21)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths % of Jewish Pop.: 16.7% (18 / 21)


Latvia

Before WWII: Gained independence after WWI, but struggled as an
independent nation during interwar era.
During WWII: USSR invades and occupies Latvia in 1939/40. Remains
under Soviet control until Germany decides to invade the USSR in 1941,
capturing Latvia that same year. Nazi occupation ends in 1944, when the
USSR reverses the Nazi advance, pursuing the Nazi army west, back toward
Germany.
After WWII: The USSR retains possession of Latvia, establishing
direct rule after the war.
WWII Affiliation: Neutral. Conquered and occupied by USSR in
1940. Conquered and occupied by Nazis (Axis) in 1941. Reconquered by
USSR in 1944 (Allies).
Casualties:
Total Deaths: 227,000 (Rank = 14 / 27)
Total Deaths % of Pop.: 11.4% (Rank = 4 / 27)
Military Deaths: 0 (Rank = 21 / 21)
Military Deaths % of Pop.: 0% (Rank = 21 / 21)
Civilian Deaths: 227,000 (Rank = 12 / 27)
Civilian Deaths % of Pop.: 11.4% (Rank = 3 / 27)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths: 80,000 (Rank = 10 / 21)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths % of Jewish Pop.: 84.2% (4 / 21)


Lithuania

Before WWII: Gained independence after WWI, but struggled as an
independent nation during interwar era.
During WWII: USSR invades and occupies Lithuania in 1939/40.
Remains under Soviet control until Germany decides to invade the USSR in
1941, capturing Lithuania that same year. Nazi occupation ends in 1944,
when the USSR reverses the Nazi advance, pursuing the Nazi army west,
back toward Germany.
After WWII: The USSR retains possession of Lithuania,
establishing direct rule after the war.
WWII Affiliation: Neutral. Conquered and occupied by USSR in
1940. Conquered and occupied by Nazis (Axis) in 1941. Reconquered by
USSR in 1944 (Allies).
Casualties:
Total Deaths: 353,000 (Rank = 10 / 27)
Total Deaths % of Pop.: 13.7% (Rank = 3 / 27)
Military Deaths: 0 (Rank = 21 / 21)
Military Deaths % of Pop.: 0% (Rank = 21 / 21)
Civilian Deaths: 353,000 (Rank = 6 / 27)
Civilian Deaths % of Pop.: 13.7% (Rank = 2 / 27)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths: 141,000 (Rank = 7 / 21)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths % of Jewish Pop.: 91% (3 / 21)


Luxembourg

Invaded by Nazis in 1940 to provide base of operations for its invasion
of France. Liberated by the Allies as they closed in on Germany in
1944/45.
WWII Affiliation: Neutral until conquered by Nazi Germany in
1940. Liberated by Allies in 1944.
Casualties:
Total Deaths: 2,000 (Rank = 25 / 27)
Total Deaths % of Pop.: 0.7% (Rank = 20 / 27)
Military Deaths: 0 (Rank = 21 / 21)
Military Deaths % of Pop.: 0% (Rank = 21 / 21)
Civilian Deaths: 2,000 (Rank = 20 / 27)
Civilian Deaths % of Pop.: 0.7% (Rank = 16 / 27)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths: 700 (Rank = 15 / 21)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths % of Jewish Pop.: 31.8% (14 / 21)


Moldova

Before WWII: Part of Romania since the end of WWI, as it has
largely been historically.
During WWII: Before the USSR joined the Allies, it was in
expansionist mode, attempting to regain territories lost during WWI. The
USSR demanded that Romania cede the region of Bessarabia in 1940.
Romania could not stand up to the USSR, and had little choice but to
concede. When the Soviets moved into Bessarabia, they placed troops even
deeper into Romania, in an area roughly equaled to modern Moldova.
After WWII: The Soviets insisted that they retain all the lands
claimed from Romania in the post-war aftermath. Their fellow Allies did
not have the will to oppose this, and conceded. As a result, Moldova
became a Soviet Socialist Republic under direct Soviet rule.


Netherlands

Invaded by Nazis in 1940 to provide base of operations for invasion of
France. The southern half was liberated in 1944 by the Allies as they
advanced east into Germany. The northern portion was occupied until the
Nazi surrender in 1945. Dutch armies helped to protect Indonesia
(Portuguese) from Japan, but Indonesia is lost to Japanese by 1945, and
would become independent after the war.
WWII Affiliation: Neutral until conquered by Nazi Germany in
1940. Liberated by Allies in 1944.
Casualties:
Total Deaths: 301,000 (Rank = 13 / 27)
Total Deaths % of Pop.: 3.4% (Rank = 11 / 27)
Military Deaths: 21,000 (Rank = 14 / 21)
Military Deaths % of Pop.: 0.2% (Rank = 14 / 21)
Civilian Deaths: 280,000 (Rank = 10 / 27)
Civilian Deaths % of Pop.: 3.2% (Rank = 8 / 27)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths: 104,000 (Rank = 8 / 21)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths % of Jewish Pop.: 65% (7 / 21)


Norway

Invaded by Nazis in 1940 to prevent the UK and/or France from doing the
same, in a race to gain control over Norway’s vast resources. Served as
a base for the Nazis to launch naval warfare in the Atlantic. Occupied
until 1945 when Nazis surrendered.
WWII Affiliation: Neutral. Invaded and occupied by Nazi Germany
in 1940 (Axis Powers). Germany forced to withdraw in 1945.
Casualties:
Total Deaths: 9,500 (Rank = 21 / 27)
Total Deaths % of Pop.: 0.3% (Rank = 22 / 27)
Military Deaths: 3,000 (Rank = 18 / 21)
Military Deaths % of Pop.: 0.1% (Rank = 17 / 21)
Civilian Deaths: 6,500 (Rank = 18 / 27)
Civilian Deaths % of Pop.: 0.2% (Rank = 18 / 27)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths: 700 (Rank = 18 / 21)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths % of Jewish Pop.: 46.7% (9 / 21)


Poland

Before WWII: Beset by economic and political turbulence during
interwar years, leaving it vulnerable to future German and Soviet
expansionist ambitions.
During WWII: In 1939, invaded by Nazi Germany from the west, and
the Soviet Union from the east. Despite resistance, was quickly
conquered and occupied. West and Central Poland would fall to the Nazis,
and Eastern Poland to the Soviets. Poland would serve as a battleground
throughout the war, utterly devastating the nation. In addition,
millions of Poles (including about 3 million Polish Jews) were
exterminated by the Nazi regime. Conquered by Russia in 1944, as Red
Army pursued the Nazi army back to Germany.
After WWII: The Soviets rigged the post-war election to ensure
the installation of a communist government. Poland would remain under
Soviet control/influence until the collapse of the USSR in 1990.
WWII Affiliation: Conquered by Germany (Axis) in 1939. Conquered
by Soviet Union (Allies) in 1944.
Casualties:
Total Deaths: 5,600,000 (Rank = 3 / 27)
Total Deaths % of Pop.: 16.1% (Rank = 1 / 27)
Military Deaths: 240,000 (Rank = 8 / 21)
Military Deaths % of Pop.: 0.7% (Rank = 8 / 21)
Civilian Deaths: 5,360,000 (Rank = 2 / 27)
Civilian Deaths % of Pop.: 15.4% (Rank = 1 / 27)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths: 3,000,000 (Rank = 1 / 21)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths % of Jewish Pop.: 100% (1 / 21)


Portugal

Neutral, but provided Allies war bases in 1943.
WWII Affiliation: Neutral, but provided Allies war bases in 1943.


Romania

During WWII: While in re-expansionist mode, the USSR demands
Romania to return Bessarabia in 1940. When it moves in to take
possession of it, the Soviets take back more than just Bessarabia,
forming a region comprising modern Moldova. As a result, Romania would
join the Axis Powers against the USSR in hopes of regaining Moldova.
Upon pursuing the Nazi army back toward Germany, the USSR conquered all
of Romania in 1944.
After WWII: Romania would be set up as a communist government
under the influence of the USSR.
WWII Affiliation: Joined Axis Powers in 1940. After invaded by
Soviets in 1944, joined the Allies.
Casualties:
Total Deaths: 833,000 (Rank = 5 / 27)
Total Deaths % of Pop.: 4.2% (Rank = 10 / 27)
Military Deaths: 300,000 (Rank = 7 / 21)
Military Deaths % of Pop.: 1.5% (Rank = 6 / 21)
Civilian Deaths: 533,000 (Rank = 5 / 27)
Civilian Deaths % of Pop.: 2.7% (Rank = 11 / 27)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths: 469,000 (Rank = 3 / 21)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths % of Jewish Pop.: 47.9% (8 / 21)


Spain

Attempted to negotiate territorial gains with Hitler in exchange for
joining the Axis Powers, but was denied. Cooperated with Nazis until war
swayed in favor of Allies, then became neutral, although not helpful to
Allies. However, Spain did protect its Jewish population, and also
offered asylum to Jews inside Nazi-occupied France. As punishment for
its cooperation with Nazi Germany, embargoes were levied against Spain
until 1953, damaging its economy during this time, and leaving it
diplomatically isolated.
WWII Affiliation: Contributed troops to Nazis in Russian
invasion, until declaring neutrality in 1944.
Casualties:
Total Deaths: 4,500 (Rank = 22 / 27)
Total Deaths % of Pop.: 0% (Rank = 25 / 27)
Military Deaths: 4,500 (Rank = 17 / 21)
Military Deaths % of Pop.: 0% (Rank = 19 / 21)
Civilian Deaths: 0 (Rank = 27 / 27)
Civilian Deaths % of Pop.: 0. (Rank = 25 / 27)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths: 0 (Rank = 21 / 21)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths % of Jewish Pop.: 0 (21 / 21)

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Sweden

Remained neutral, but provided assistance to both sides. Allowed Nazis
to transport troops through Sweden into Finland, in exchange for
recognition of neutrality (avoiding invasion/occupation). Also sold
iron-ore to Germany, needed to supply its war effort. When Germany began
to weaken in 1943, Sweden was emboldened to offer more assistance to the
Allies. Even before this, Sweden ceded its navy to the Allies to combat
the Germans at sea. Sweden’s failure to come to the aid of other Nordic
counties has been seen as cowardly by some, but Sweden maintains that
its first objective was to ensure the safety of its people. Aggressively
opposing Germany would certainly have invited Nazi occupation.
WWII Affiliation: Neutral.
Casualties:
Total Deaths: 2,200 (Rank = 24 / 27)
Total Deaths % of Pop.: 0% (Rank = 24 / 27)
Military Deaths: 200 (Rank = 20 / 21)
Military Deaths % of Pop.: 0% (Rank = 20 / 21)
Civilian Deaths: 2,000 (Rank = 22 / 27)
Civilian Deaths % of Pop.: 0% (Rank = 23 / 27)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths: 0 (Rank = 21 / 21)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths % of Jewish Pop.: 0% (21 / 21)


Switzerland

Remains neutral, although Nazi invasion of Switzerland was planned, but
never carried out. By 1940, surrounded by Axis Powers to all sides (due
to Nazi conquests), and forced to do business with Nazis as a result. As
a small nation with limited natural resources, Switzerland depends on
trade with its neighbors to keep its economy afloat, and to procure
essential goods.
WWII Affiliation: Neutral
Casualties:
Total Deaths: 100 (Rank = 27 / 27)
Total Deaths % of Pop.: 0% (Rank = 27 / 27)
Military Deaths: 0 (Rank = 21 / 21)
Military Deaths % of Pop.: 0% (Rank = 21 / 21)
Civilian Deaths: 100 (Rank = 26 / 27)
Civilian Deaths % of Pop.: 0% (Rank = 26 / 27)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths: 0 (Rank = 21 / 21)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths % of Jewish Pop.: 0% (21 / 21)


Turkey

Remained neutral during war.


Ukraine

Before WWII: A Soviet Socialist Republic.
During WWII: Nazi army conquers Ukraine SSR as part of its Soviet
invasion of 1941. Regained by the USSR in 1944, after the Red Army
forces the Nazis to retreat back toward Germany.
After WWII: Re-established as a Soviet Socialist Republic.


United Kingdom

Before WWII: Remains the leading European power, despite taking
lumps as a victor in WWI, and the interwar Global Depression. As a
result, hesitant to oppose Germany as it became belligerent during the
1930s.
During WWII: Declares war on Germany in 1939, after its invasion
of Poland. Most powerful navy of the European powers, but the British
army was ill-prepared. Contributed troops to France, Norway, Middle
East, Africa, India, Greece, invasion of Italy and the Pacific/Asian
Theatre. Participated in the Invasion of Normandy and the Battle of the
Bulge. Initially suffered difficulties against German U-boat strikes,
but with help of U.S., gained superiority over Germany in the Atlantic
and the Northern Sea. Along with the U.S. and Russia, played most
important role in liberating France and defeating the Axis Powers.
After WWII: Part of the big 3 powers that decided the fate of
post-war Europe. Like all other European nations, suffered a high loss
of life, and economic damaged. Less capable of maintaining massive
empire, as colonies begin to declare independence one after another over
the next 20 years, largely due to WWII, which severely weakened UK, and
further increased the sense of nationhood of colonies, many of which
contributed to the war effort. With global anti-colonial sentiment
(especially by the US), and a decreasing will to shed blood and to
expend the high monetary cost to necessary to maintain overseas empire,
the UK grants independence to most colonies without threat of military
action. By early 1960s, it had lost most of its empire.
WWII Affiliation: Allies
Casualties:
Total Deaths: 449,800 (Rank = 9 / 27)
Total Deaths % of Pop.: 0.9% (Rank = 19 / 27)
Military Deaths: 382,700 (Rank = 4 / 21)
Military Deaths % of Pop.: 0.8% (Rank = 7 / 21)
Civilian Deaths: 67,100 (Rank = 16 / 27)
Civilian Deaths % of Pop.: 0.1% (Rank = 19 / 27)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths: 0 (Rank = 21 / 21)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths % of Jewish Pop.: 0 (21 / 21)


USSR (Soviet Union)

Before WWII: The Soviet Union signs non-aggression pact with the
Nazis where they essentially divide Eastern Europe between themselves.

During WWII: The USSR invades Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania
and Eastern Poland. Finland resists, but others fall under Soviet
control. The USSR loses most of these territories to the Nazis in 1941,
as Nazis decide to take advantage of what they perceive to be a weakened
USSR. After marching all the way to Moscow, the Red Army turns the
tables, with the help of the harsh winter conditions and scorched earth
tactics. The USSR retakes lost territories by 1944, also gaining all of
Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Balkan territories. Successfully
launches invasion into Germany from east, helping to force Nazi
surrender. Due to key role in defeat of Nazis, gains great power &
influence in Europe, giving it role in deciding post-war map of Europe.

After WWII: Most of Eastern Europe was devastated and
destabilized from WWII. The USSR takes advantage, setting up communist
governments in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Romania and
Bulgaria. The Baltic nations of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are simply
added directly to the Soviet Union. The USSR also keeps the northern
part of East Prussia (formerly part of Germany), naming it Kaliningrad
Oblast, to give it a badly needed warm-water port in the Baltic Sea.
With this gain in territory, the USSR becomes a leading world power,
along with the U.S., as it is strengthened while other European powers
are weakened.
WWII Affiliation: Began war neutral, but in cooperation with Nazi
Germany with an agreement to divide Eastern Europe between themselves.
Joined Allies after invaded by Nazi Germany.
Casualties:
Total Deaths: 23,100,000 (Rank = 1 / 27)
Total Deaths % of Pop.: 13.7% (Rank = 2 / 27)
Military Deaths: 10,700,000 (Rank = 1 / 21)
Military Deaths % of Pop.: 6.4% (Rank = 2 / 21)
Civilian Deaths: 12,400,000 (Rank = 1 / 27)
Civilian Deaths % of Pop.: 7.4% (Rank = 4 / 27)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths: 1,000,000 (Rank = 2 / 21)
Jewish Holocaust Deaths % of Jewish Pop.: 39.6% (12 / 21)


Yugoslavia

Before WWII: South Slav peoples/nations consolidated into the
single pan-Slavic nation of Yugoslavia.
During WWII: Invaded and occupied by Nazis in 1941. Bulgarians
and Italians corroborate with the Nazis, each taking possession of a
section of Yugoslavia (Bulgaria the SE corner, and Italy the western
slice), while the Nazis controlled the heart of Yugoslavia. Liberated by
the advancing USSR Red Army in 1944.
After WWII: Under USSR pressure, a communist government is
established under the Soviet sphere of influence. Yugoslavia would
distance itself from the USSR soon after the end of the war, but would
remain a communist-style republic.


Casualty Ranks By Country (European):



Total Deaths:

1. Soviet Union: 23,100,000
2. Germany: 7,393,000
3. Poland: 5,600,000
4. Yugoslavia: 1,027,000
5. Romania: 833,000
6. Hungary: 580,000
7. France: 567,000
8. Italy: 454,500
9. United Kingdom: 449,800
10. Lithuania: 353,000
11. Czechoslovakia: 345,000
12. Greece: 311,300
13. Netherlands: 301,000
14. Latvia: 227,000
15. Austria: 105,500
16. Finland: 97,000
17. Belgium: 86,100
18. Estonia: 49,000
19. Albania: 28,200
20. Bulgaria: 25,000
21. Norway: 9,500
22. Spain: 4,500
23. Denmark: 3,200
24. Sweden: 2,200
25. Luxembourg: 2,000
26. Ireland: 200
27. Switzerland: 100

Total Deaths as % of Population:

1. Poland: 16.1%
2. Soviet Union: 13.7%
3. Lithuania: 13.7%
4. Latvia: 11.4%
5. Germany: 10.6%
6. Yugoslavia: 6.7%
7. Hungary: 6.4%
8. Greece: 4.3%
9. Estonia: 4.3%
10. Romania: 4.2%
11. Netherlands: 3.4%
12. Albania: 2.6%
13. Finland: 2.6%
14. Czechoslovakia: 2.3%
15. Austria: 1.6%
16. France: 1.4%
17. Belgium: 1%
18. Italy: 1%
19. United Kingdom: 0.9%
20. Luxembourg: 0.7%
21. Bulgaria: 0.4%
22. Norway: 0.3%
23. Denmark: 0.1%
24. Sweden: 0%
25. Spain: 0%
26. Ireland: 0%
27. Switzerland: 0%

Total Military Deaths

1. Soviet Union: 10,700,000
2. Germany: 5,533,000
3. Yugoslavia: 446,000
4. United Kingdom: 382,700
5. Italy: 301,400
6. Hungary: 300,000
7. Romania: 300,000
8. Poland: 240,000
9. France: 217,600
10. Finland: 95,000
11. Albania: 28,000
12. Czechoslovakia: 25,000
13. Bulgaria: 22,000
14. Netherlands: 21,000
15. Greece: 20,000
16. Belgium: 12,100
17. Spain: 4,500
18. Norway: 3,000
19. Denmark: 2,100
20. Sweden: 200
21. Latvia: 0
21. Lithuania: 0
21. Luxembourg: 0
21. Austria: 0
21. Estonia: 0
21. Ireland: 0
21. Switzerland: 0

Military Deaths as % of Population:

1. Germany: 7.9%
2. Soviet Union: 6.4%
3. Hungary: 3.3%
4. Finland: 2.6%
5. Albania: 2.6%
6. Romania: 1.5%
7. United Kingdom: 0.8%
8. Poland: 0.7%
9. Italy: 0.7%
10. France: 0.5%
11. Yugoslavia: 0.3%
12. Bulgaria: 0.3%
13. Greece: 0.3%
14. Netherlands: 0.2%
15. Czechoslovakia: 0.2%
16. Belgium: 0.1%
17. Norway: 0.1%
18. Denmark: 0.0%
19. Spain: 0.0%
20. Sweden: 0.0%
21. Latvia: –
21. Lithuania: –
21. Luxembourg: –
21. Austria: –
21. Estonia: –
21. Ireland: –
21. Switzerland: –

Total Civilian Deaths:

1. Soviet Union: 12,400,000
2. Poland: 5,360,000
3. Germany: 1,860,000
4. Yugoslavia: 581,000
5. Romania: 533,000
6. Lithuania: 353,000
7. France: 350,000
8. Czechoslovakia: 320,000
9. Greece: 291,300
10. Netherlands: 280,000
11. Hungary: 280,000
12. Latvia: 227,000
13. Italy: 153,100
14. Austria: 105,500
15. Belgium: 74,000
16. United Kingdom: 67,100
17. Estonia: 49,000
18. Norway: 6,500
19. Bulgaria: 3,000
20. Luxembourg: 2,000
21. Finland: 2,000
22. Sweden: 2,000
23. Denmark: 1,100
24. Albania: 200
25. Ireland: 200
26. Switzerland: 100
27. Spain: 0

Civilian Deaths as % of Population:

1. Poland: 15.4%
2. Lithuania: 13.7%
3. Latvia: 11.4%
4. Soviet Union: 7.4%
5. Estonia: 4.3%
6. Greece: 4%
7. Yugoslavia: 3.8%
8. Netherlands: 3.2%
9. Hungary: 3.1%
10. Germany: 2.7%
11. Romania: 2.7%
12. Czechoslovakia: 2.1%
13. Austria: 1.6%
14. Belgium: 0.9%
15. France: 0.8%
16. Luxembourg: 0.7%
17. Italy: 0.3%
18. Norway: 0.2%
19. United Kingdom: 0.1%
20. Finland: 0.1%
21. Denmark: 0.0%
22. Bulgaria: 0.0%
23. Sweden: 0.0%
24. Albania: 0.0%
25. Ireland: 0.0%
26. Switzerland: 0.0%
27. Spain: 0.0%

Holocaust Deaths:

1. Poland: 3,000,000
2. Soviet Union: 1,000,000
3. Romania: 469,000
4. Czechoslovakia: 277,000
5. Hungary: 200,000
6. Germany: 160,000
7. Lithuania: 141,000
8. Netherlands: 104,000
9. France: 83,000
10. Latvia: 80,000
11. Greece: 71,300
12. Yugoslavia: 67,000
13. Austria: 65,000
14. Belgium: 24,400
15. Italy: 8,000
16. Estonia: 1,000
17. Luxembourg: 700
18. Norway: 700
19. Denmark: 100
20. Albania: 10
21. Finland: 0
21. Bulgaria: 0
21. Sweden: 0
21. Albania: 0
21. Ireland: 0
21. Switzerland: 0
21. Spain: 0

Jewish Holocaust Deaths as % of Jewish Population:

1. Poland: 100%
2. Yugoslavia: 95.7%
3. Lithuania: 91%
4. Latvia: 84.2%
5. Czechoslovakia: 77.6%
6. Greece: 71.3%
7. Netherlands: 65%
8. Romania: 47.9%
9. Norway: 46.7%
10. Hungary: 44.9%
11. Belgium: 40.7%
12. Soviet Union: 39.6%
13. France: 36.9%
14. Luxembourg: 31.8%
15. Germany: 28.3%
16. Austria: 26%
17. Estonia: 20%
18. Italy: 16.7%
19. Albania: 5%
20. Denmark: 1.7%
21. Finland: 0
21. Bulgaria: 0
21. Sweden: 0
21. Albania: 0
21. Ireland: 0
21. Switzerland: 0
21. Spain: 0

Casualties for Non-European Nations:

Nation Total
Deaths
Total
Deaths as % of Pop.
Military
Deaths
Civilian
Deaths
Australia 41,200 0.6% 40,500 700
Burma 272,000 1.2% 22,000 250,000
Canada 45,300 0.4% 45,300 0
China 20,000,000 3.9% 3,800,000 16,200,000
Ethiopia 100,000 0.6% 5,000 95,000
India 1,587,000 0.4% 87,000 1,500,000
Indonesia 4,000,000 5.8% 0 4,000,000
Japan 2,700,000 3.8% 2,120,000 580,000
Korea 378,000 1.6% 0 378,000
Malaya 100,000 2.3% 0 100,000
Micronesia 57,000 3% 0 57,000
New Zealand 11,900 0.7% 11,900 0
Philippines 147,000 0.9% 57,000 90,000
Portuguese Timor 55,000 11% 0 55,000
Singapore 50,000 6.9% 0 50,000
South Africa 11,900 0.1% 11,900 10
Thailand 5,900 0% 5,600 300
United States 418,500 0.3% 416,800 1,700
Vietnam 1,000,000 4.1% 0 1,000,000

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